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Ethiopia: Birtukan, Invictus! (Unconquered)

By Alemayehu G. Mariam

Birtukan Midekssa condemned to life in prison by a vengeful dictator, but unconquered.

Birtukan thrown into the dungeon of wrath and tears, but defiant.

Birtukan beaten, bludgeoned and bloodied, but unbowed.

Birtukan mocked, ridiculed and disrespected, but gracious.

Birtukan denounced, vilified, strong-armed and manhandled, but unafraid.

Ethiopia under the crushing boots of soldiers of fortune.

Birtukan, Invictus!

Ethiopia, Invictus!

I remember the 29th of December, 2008. Almost a year ago to the day, the only woman political party leader in Ethiopia’s 3,000-year history was manhandled and abducted to prison. Professor Mesfin Woldemariam, founder and former chairman of the Ethiopian Human Rights Council, was an eyewitness to the crime. He told the Voice of America that he was having a conversation with Bitukan and another person outside an office building when four unmarked official vehicles stormed on the scene. Approximately 10 armed men   got out and surrounded Birtukan. They grabbed and dragged her into one of the vehicles. One of the thugs  savagely assaulted the nearly 80-year old professor with the butt of his rifle. In seconds, Birtukan was snatched away to the infamous Kality prison, and the professor to the hospital.

The facts leading up to the street abduction of Birtukan’s are not in dispute. On December 10, 2008 the “Federal Police Commissioner” sent two District 12 policemen to order Birtukan to come to his office.  She went thinking that he probably wanted to talk about her political party.  He wanted to talk about her pardon which resulted in her release from prison in 2007. She questioned his authority to interrogate her on the matter. He mocked her and she left. On December 24, 2008, the “commissioner” ordered her to appear in his office and gave her an ultimatum: Retract a statement she made in Sweden allegedly denying receipt of a pardon, or face immediate imprisonment.

Birtukan has never denied receiving a pardon. In Sweden where she allegedly denied the so-called pardon in a talk to a small group of supporters, she merely explained the legal and political circumstances surrounding the grant of pardon.  In Q’ale (My Testimony), her last public statement issued a couple of days before her abduction, she made full acknowledgement of the so-called pardon:

I have not denied signing the document which the elders persuaded us to sign on June 22, 2006 for the sake of national reconciliation. How could it be said that I denied a pardon document I signed, and whose content I accepted? How is that a crime? Where is the mistake?

The fact of the matter is that Birtukan was granted a bogus pardon for a bogus crime for which she was convicted in a kangaroo court. As it is said, “any excuse will serve the tyrant”; and for Zenawi to claim that he jailed Birtukan because she denied receiving a pardon is an insult only to his own intelligence. The real reasons have to do with incapacitating her from running in the 2010 elections, and thwarting her efforts to  build a broad  coalition of political parties to oppose his dictatorship. No doubt, he takes her outright defiance as a personal slight.

But who is Birtukan Midekksa? Dictator Zenawi not long ago proverbially characterized her to his rubberstamp parliament as a faddish hen that hanged herself.  If we must indulge in animal metaphors to describe her, she is best characterized as a lioness fighting hordes of hyenas. She has always defined herself as an ordinary woman irrevocably committed to the rule of law, freedom, democracy and human rights. She understands her adversaries well. Days before her abduction, she told journalist Abiye Teklemariam, founding editor of the independent weekly Addis Neger, (which recently folded following the dictatorship’s relentless war on the independent press in Ethiopia):

You have to know that they are paper tigers. They are weak, but want to appear strong. They would think caging a woman with a three year old daughter who lives under their firm surveillance every day demonstrates their toughness…. They forcefully make people hostage to their family and social commitments. They compel you to choose between freedom and family.

So for anyone who wants to know the real Birtukan, the answer is simple. She is the Lioness of Ethiopia who chose, without the slightest hesitation, freedom over family, country over child; and above all, Mother Ethiopia over the mother that gave her birth. She is an Ethiopian woman of integrity, humility, conviction, principle and intellect. It is a special honor and privilege for me to pay tribute to this extraordinary woman and outstanding Ethiopian political leader on the first anniversary of her unjust imprisonment.

I believe every blessed nation is given by Providence an individual that personifies its suffering and its pain, its present predicament and its future grandeur. Such an individual evolves to become a transformative leader guiding a lost and hopeless nation out of the darkness of discord and strife into the sunshine of freedom, equality and democracy. In South Africa, Nelson Mandela sutured the racially and ethnically torn South African body politics and led his people to a successful multiparty democracy. In India, Mahatma Gandhi rid his country of the plague of colonialism with nothing in his hands but love in his heart and nonviolent resistance in every fiber of his body. In the U.S., Martin Luther King seared the conscience of Americans and helped them confront the twin demons of racism and discrimination. In Burma (Myanmar), Aung San Suu Kyi has languished in prison for years, yet for every Burmese she stands as a shining beacon of hope and redemption. Ethiopia is blessed to have Birtukan Midekssa who today languishes in prison for standing up to a ruthless and barbaric dictator. She willingly gave up her personal liberty so that her people could one day live in freedom and enjoy the blessings of democracy.

I first met Birtukan on September 9, 2007, when she arrived at Dulles Airport outside Washington, D.C., leading a delegation of the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (Kinijit) party to North America. I had the honor of chairing an informal North American coordinating committee for that delegation which included Dr. Berhanu Nega, Dr. Hailu Araya, Ato Gizachew Shiferraw and Ato Brook Kebede. Their reception at Dulles is now the stuff of legend. Thousands of Ethiopians showed up and filled that cavernous airport. A special airport detail was assigned for crowd control. The motorcade that followed them to their hotel was several miles long. In the nearly one-half century of that airport’s existence, nothing so historic, spectacular and triumphant had ever been witnessed. It was a September to remember.

From the very moment I met Birtukan and the delegation, I was impressed by their humility, simplicity, integrity, matter-of-factness and optimism about Ethiopia’s future. Many Ethiopians were pleasantly surprised to see a woman leading such an important delegation. Many who met Birtukan in the following weeks deepened their respect and appreciation when they saw that she has a “a good head and a good heart [which] are always a formidable combination” in a leader, as Mandela once noted. In private and in her public statements and speeches, she did not dwell on the past but showed intense concern and optimism for Ethiopia’s future. Remarkably, she never showed any bitterness or animosity towards those who had unjustly imprisoned and persecuted her for nearly two years.

Who is afraid of Birtukan Midekssa? Birtukan’s maxim is, “Ethiopia is the country of the future.” The dictators are not afraid of Birtukan, but they are terrified of what she represents: Ethiopia’s bright future. Birtukan stands for the unity of all Ethiopians and stands against ethnic hatred, division and strife. That petrifies her captors. As Mandela “dreamt of an Africa which is in peace with itself, ” Birtukan dreams of an Ethiopia at peace and harmony with itself. That sends shivers down the spines of those who have caged her. Birtukan appeals to Ethiopia’s youth, who represent over 70 per cent of the population. Her universal youth appeal makes the dictators shake in their boots. Birtukan stands resolute in the defense of the rule of law, the “Constitution of Ethiopia”, freedom, democracy, equality, human rights and accountability. That makes her tormentors panic-stricken. As Ethiopia is the country of the future, Birtukan is the shining star rising over the horizon of that future.

Birtukan is in prison, but she is the freest person in all of Ethiopia. She stood up to dictatorship and did not back down. They threw everything at her. They kept her in solitary confinement hoping she would go mad in isolation. They denied her visitation with her lawyers believing she will forget her basic human and constitutional rights. They denied her books, a radio and newspapers thinking she will feel lost in the dark.  They would interrupt her family visits before she finished exchanging smiles, hugs and kisses with her mother and daughter hoping to crush her emotionally. They would not allow her friends and colleagues to visit her expecting she will feel abandoned and forgotten. They played every dirty psychological game to humiliate, mistreat and provoke her; and they thought that would break her spirit, weaken her resolve and plunge her into the depths of despair and sorrow. They have spared nothing to make her believe that she will suffer and die alone in prison. But Birtukan survives, and she will survive and prevail. Prison for a true political leader is like fire to steel. Prison makes the political prisoner stronger and steadfastly resolute.

Mandela said, “In my country we go to prison first and then become President.” I shall argue that Birtukan is just doing what is required of all great leaders before they are called for duty in the service of their country. When Mandela was sentenced to life, he did not waste his time in prison crying over his fate; rather, he used his time to prepare himself for his future leadership duties in bringing all South Africans together. It is the natural occupation of all great imprisoned political leaders to use their time in prison to prepare for the solemn duties that await them. I do not doubt that Birtukan is doing that right now. But political prisoners are the ultimate survivors. As Mandela said, it is an essential condition of survival for the political prisoner to believe that good will in the end triumph over evil. Mandela was written off for decades by his tormentors, but his name was at the tip of every freedom-loving South African’s tongue. It was in prison that Mandela learned to understand and even empathize with his hateful persecutors. He honed his negotiating skills in prison and developed infinite patience and perseverance in his pursuit of equality and justice for all in South Africa. Like Mandela, Birtukan is undergoing necessary training in prison before she is called to perform her solemn duties of state.

Birtukan does not see the struggle for freedom, democracy and human rights as a short-term effort. She knows in every fiber of her body that it will take time and enormous effort to purge the poison of ethnic politics from Ethiopian society. She knows it will not be easy to establish and practice the principle of the rule of law in a land that has suffered for so long under the immoral creed of might makes right. Birtukan understands that it will take a massive effort to build working coalitions, partnerships and alliances to forge a strong multiparty political system. She knows it will take all of Ethiopia’s youth to build bridges from the north to the south and east to west. But Birtukan also knows that she will be ready for these challenges when she is called to report for duty.

In his recent diatribe on Birtukan, Zenawi said that she became the proverbial faddish hen believing that powerful people in the West would get her out of jail quickly. The dictator apparently believes that Birtukan is “too much of a darling” for the West and stealing the spotlight from him. The fact is that Birtukan never put much stock in diplomats or Western pressure to help her personally or to bring about fundamental change in Ethiopia. Though she understood the need to build support in the international community, she knew very well that all of the heavy lifting has to be done by Ethiopians:

I thought that diplomatic battle was a major part of the non-violent struggle. In politics, as they say, a week is too long. I have learnt my lessons. This is our fight. We ask them to join the fight for freedom and justice. We ask them to live up to their rhetoric and supposed creed. But we don’t beg them. This is our fight, not theirs. They would come running when they think they think that we have won it… We have to stop overemphasizing their value…. They like winners. They have strategic objectives which only winners can help them achieve. We should show them that we are winners, not beggars.

Zenawi becomes apoplectic at the mention of Birtukan’s name. His hackles go up and he could hardly contain his rage and antipathy towards her. Taking a chapter out of the book of Burma’s dictator, Gen. Than Shwe, he recently told a press conference, “There will never be an agreement with anybody to release Birtukan. Ever. Full stop. That’s a dead issue.” On this point, he is right. As Mandela said, “Only free men (and free women) can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts.” Birtukan is a political prisoner and can not negotiate an  “agreement” for her freedom. She will also never beg for her freedom. “Ever. Full stop.” Period!

Don’t cry for Birtukan, Ethiopia!  “The truth is she never left you. She kept her promise. Don’t keep your distance.”  The dictators will do everything to break her spirit, torment her body and make her life in prison a living hell. Mandela told his Apartheid tormentors, “You may succeed in delaying, but never in preventing the transition of South Africa to a democracy.” The dictators may succeed in jailing Birtukan and thousands of others for however long they want and victimize and dehumanize them; but they will never, never be able to keep Ethiopia ethnically fragmented and its people at war with each other so that they can cling to power. Nor will they be able to permanently stave off  the triumph of freedom, democracy and human rights from that ancient land.

On a personal note, I thank Birtukan for inspiring me and many others like myself to be involved in the struggle for human rights and democracy in the country of our birth. The courage of her convictions refreshes us every day like the pure mountain spring water. For all Birtukan Midekssa has done and tried to do, and in the spirit of eternal gratitude, I dedicate to her William Ernest Henley’s poem, “Invictus” (Unconquered). Nelson Mandela had this poem written on a piece of paper which he kept in his cell to uplift his spirit over the long years of incarceration. I trust this poem will uplift Birtukan’s spirit as much as it did Mandela’s.


Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the Pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.

In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.

Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll.
I am the master of my fate:
I am the captain of my soul.

Birtukan, stay strong! The “night that covers” you will not last forever. Darkness always turns into light.

Alemayehu G. Mariam, is a professor of political science at California State University, San Bernardino, and an attorney based in Los Angeles. He writes a regular blog on The Huffington Post, and his commentaries appear regularly on Pambazuka News and New American Media.

9 thoughts on “Ethiopia: Birtukan, Invictus! (Unconquered)

  1. If Birtukan is the symbol of Ethiopian opposition, then Ethioipia has a long way yo go before overthrowing the woyane tyranny. We need the kind of attitude of Andargachew and Birhanu Nega. Woyane has sentenced the duo to death, because woyane knows these two individuals are not prepared to compromise anymore. They will accept nothing short than the total demise of the Tigré mafia … for God’s sake Birtukan apologized to the Tigrés on our behalf

  2. Her body in Qaliti, but her spirit out of Qaliti

    Birtukan Mideksa, alone in jail, deprived of sunshine, and the other natural beauties of the world, such as touching the flowers, smelling them, watching the birds fly and listening to their morning and evening songs, is the quintessence of patience, tolerance, wisdom, and long suffering.

    The incarceration of Birtukan, the future prime minister of Ethiopia, is, in disguise, the undeniable and destructive enemy of Meles Seitanawi (Zenawi); while in surface her incarceration gives Meles ultimate satisfaction that she will remain incarcerated, but, as she stays longer in jail, she is scoring high marks every single day while Meles, watching her from getting out of jail unnoticed, is scoring zero.

    The incarceration of one Ethiopian political woman has greater impact in the minds and hearts of the Ethiopian people than the incarceration of, perhaps, Mesfin Woldemariam or another man because most people by nature are very sympathetic to the cause of a woman who has a young daughter and an old mother left behind while the mother of the young child is serving a long jail sentence.

    The imprisonment of Birtukan in the long run is going to benefit millions of Ethiopians living under the oppressive, lawless dictator, Meles Seitanawi, as the crucifixion of one person, Jesus Christ, benefitted millions of souls and brought them out of the bondage of the devil.

    Birtukan Mideksa, while in jail, is not sitting idle; using her incarceration as one of the best proven weapons, she is fighting Meles Seitanawi and his political cadres to surrender power to her, a future legitimate leader of the Ethiopian people. As her incarceration brings echoic words into the ears of Meles Seitanawi, Meles, however, deaf to such inviting words of her, may not respond to her as quick as possible in kind words civilized people have used throughout the centuries.

    His empty words that Birtukan will never get out of jail, will never see the sun again, and will never breathe the fresh air of freedom, have no binding effects at all because Birtukan’s ideology, Birtukan’s leadership, Birtukan’s aspiration, and Birtukan’s love for the Ethiopian people are not in jail with her physically; they are out all over the world, bringing more people to the community of democracy and empowering them to defeat the enemies of democracy throughout the world and especially in Ethiopia where 80 million people are spiritually in jail with Birtukan for the sake of democracy and the rule of law.

    Meles Seitanawi has incarcerated Birtukan Mideksa physically, but not spiritually; he has power on her physical body, but not on her spirit. He can control her bodily movement, and that is why he is able to incarcerate her, but he could not incarcerate her spirit which is already in the hearts of all the Ethiopian people, galvanizing them inspiring them, and finally leading them to victory.

    Meles, the coward, is able to put in jail a woman, but he cannot jail her fame, her good work, and her goal to unite Ethiopia and to condemn the unfair treatments of the Ethiopian people by a power-hungry man, Meles Seitanawi.

    Come 2010, Meles Seitanawi will be in panic and his death squad will be at the highest alert to shoot to kill any Ethiopian found voting for the Birtukan Party; however, when Meles is in doubt that his winning chance is very slim, he will dismantle the existing law about the election and order the parliament to craft a new law, and in the mean time postpone the 2010 Election to another time. If this technique does not work, he will concoct another one that will make him win the election.

    Birtukan Mideksa may not be able to run for the 2010 Election, if she does, I’m positive she will win by a land slide, but Meles Seitanawi will say, ‘on my dead body’ “this woman will never take power from me.” Then he will order his death squad to put her back in jail or to assassinate her. May God forbid Meles’evil intention on our future leader, Birtukan Mideksa and on our country, Ethiopia!

  3. Yes,every body feel sad about what happens to Birtukan. But what we have to know is she is trying to bring change peacefully which is impossible. do you think that her spirit from prison will help us and free Ethiopia no. About Nelson Mandela it SO something else because while he was in prison the fighting was out. About Mahatma Gandhi the same thing. There can be similarity with Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar. is the only solution is armed struggle so lets join the for example EPPF is fighting for Ethiopian unity.Unless otherwise.’wyane’ is killing the people systematically by hanger and bombardment.

  4. Thank you so much Al.

    “አባይ የሚያድርበት የለው ግንድ ይዞ ይዞራል”

    For all of you who speak ill about the opposition no matter how wrong you find there stance, please remeember that you are only assisting the very flame that is engulfing your HOME. I have sworn as my 11th command never to speak against any opposition group as long Woyane the self avowed nation killer, is still in power.

    God Save Ethiopia!

  5. I do not trust Berhanu, I never did. I feel like he is opportunistic guy. And for a Bertukan to ask the most criminal governemnet Ethiopia has ever had some kind of “Pardon” because of elders and for “National reconciliation”, does not go well with me. In fact my stomach is churning with anger. As to Andargatchew, the jury is still out on him. I hope he is the one (or one of) some genuine Ethiopians who could lead us to the promised land?????

  6. M=Merciless

    The Millions of Ethiopians who have scarified their lives must be turning in their graves knowing the country they died for is under a man of these qualities–Merciless-Egotistic-Looter-Evil and Sociopath. How sad it is to see our innocent Ethiopians like Birtukan are thrown in jail and the mental case Meles that has committed atrocities on Ethiopian people is living in the palace!! What kind of world are we living in, when the mother of Democracy United States, the Obama administrations is looking the other way while Meles throwing innocent Ethiopians in jail and sentenced them to death!!!

  7. There are many questions that the Ethiopia people want to know regarding Birtukan Midekssa. Who is really Birtukan Midekssa? She was imprisoned with her fellow members of CUD after CUD won Ethiopia election. Then she was released from prison and she was allowed to go to the western nations. After concluding her tour she return back to weyane land Ethiopia and the devil Meles imprisoned her for the second time. As they say it, if you fool me once shame for you but you fool me twice shame on me. She was imprisoned the first time just because she won the election of Ethiopia with her CUD organization. That should be a shame to the wyane gang’s leader. She believed that using peaceful method
    CUD will win the 2005 Ethiopia election and the CUD participated as leader of Ethiopia oppositions in the weyane Ethiopian election. Just because CUD won peacefully the 2005 Ethiopian election, the winning of CUD on the 2995 Ethiopia elation, anger, hate and revenge among the leadership of TPLF gang’s fully developed against the people of Ethiopia. As result of these phenomena the weyane regime killed and imprisoned so many innocent Ethiopian voters and finally imprisoned almost the entire CUD leadership. But the lady Birtukan Midekssa. after her relies from prison she had the chance to learn not to be fooled again by the criminal gang’s leadership. She blew it. She return back to Ethiopia to crete another opposition organization in order to participate the coming 2010 Ethiopia election. But the gang’s leader Meles zenawi imprisoned her just because he felt that she was favorite among western diplomats. But the question is to whom is the shame belong? To the mercenary Meles or Birtukan Midekssa? Is she fooled twice? Was it smart move to go back to weyane Ethiopia land in order to participate in another TPLF election? Who was guiding her to take these kind of deacons? who was her advisors when she was fooled for the second time? Is it her advisors wanted her to be imprisoned in order to become Nelson Mandala of Ethiopia? Is the imprisonment of Birtukan Midekssa was disjoined by the west? If is so what is their ultimate goal about her? If her imprisonment is not the design of the west, did she really believe that the weyane will allow her to be the leader of Ethiopia nation? I think there are so many question around her and the Ethiopia people shouldn’t be fooled again and again. Therefore who is Birtukan Midekssa must be answered in a truth manner to the people of Ethiopia.

  8. The writer expressed his taughts very well, “The Truth” The truth is supposed to be as a light house to guide for a better civiliazation.

    Don’t cry for Birtukan, Ethiopia! “The truth is she never left you. She kept her promise. Don’t keep your distance.”

    Here is The Song by Modonna

    It won’t be easy, you’ll think it strange
    When I try to explain how I feel
    That I still need your love after all that I’ve done

    You won’t believe me
    All you will see is a girl you once knew
    Although she’s dressed up to the nines
    At sixes and sevens with you

    I had to let it happen, I had to change
    Couldn’t stay all my life down at heel
    Looking out of the window, staying out of the sun

    So I chose freedom
    Running around, trying everything new
    But nothing impressed me at all
    I never expected it to


    Don’t cry for me Argentina
    The truth is I never left you
    All through my wild days
    My mad existence
    I kept my promise
    Don’t keep your distance

    And as for fortune, and as for fame
    I never invited them in
    Though it seemed to the world they were all I desired

    They are illusions
    They are not the solutions they promised to be
    The answer was here all the time
    I love you and hope you love me

    Don’t cry for me Argentina


    Have I said too much?
    There’s nothing more I can think of to say to you.
    But all you have to do is look at me to know
    That every word is true

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